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Nike Crop Top Womens

Soap ingredients also can be added to the gel to prevent bacterial growth in the well. If bacteria forms, it could release deadly gases.

In recent years, combining hydraulic fracturing with horizontal drilling is what has allowed for the oil and gas revolution that many in the industry say will pull America away from the Middle East in terms of long term resources and energy independence.

A misunderstood process

"People don't equate drilling with fracking," Richardson said. "I don't think most people understand if you ban fracking, you effectively ban drilling."

Fracking has always been a part of drilling. The new part of the process is horizontal drilling.

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more than a mile, and a lot of science to calculate the exact mixtures of everything from chemicals and water and sand to the pressure it Nike Windrunner Jacket Girls

A recent study by researchers at Oregon State, George Mason and Yale universities revealed that more than half of the 1,000 plus people surveyed across the nation had no idea what fracking was, and almost 60 percent had no opinion on it.

To prep the area, several 500 barrel tanks for water storage or a massive, 40,000 barrel pool to store water is erected on the periphery of the site. Sand storage tanks arrive, then are filled. A typical frac job will utilize from 1.5 million to 6 million pounds of sand.

Fracking, the two to three day process of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas, is perhaps one of the most misunderstood drilling practices, becoming as bad of a word in some circles Nike Crop Top Womens as a racial slur.

Companies start the drilling process on about a 3 acre pad of land, which allows for the many trucks that become part of an oil and gas drilling process.

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Nike Crop Top Womens

Nike Crop Top Womens

Nike Crop Top Womens

To handle the sand, water, chemicals and production that comes out of the well during the fracking of the well (commonly called flowback), the site needs have the basics: Trucks, trucks and more trucks to carry the water, the sand, and the chemicals to mix them all together, and more truck horsepower to combine it all to shoot down through a pipe into an 8 inch hole in the ground.

Entire countries have banned the process. Some Colorado towns have placed moratoriums to study it further.

The process begins with vertical drilling. A drilling rig is brought on site to drill the well, which will go to depths of up to 10,000 feet below the surface. This process can take from a week to 10 days, depending on the site.

It's important to understand that fracking is a small part of a much larger operation to get oil and gas from a mile below the surface into storage tanks for market.

The actual fracking process uses a lot of machinery capable of driving the fluid down Nike Hoodie Rose Gold

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"It's a perplexing issue," said Collin Richardson, vice president of operations for Mineral Resources Inc., who opened up a company fracking job last fall to a student tour from the University of Northern Colorado. "People go to a light switch and expect energy to be there, but they don't think about where it comes from. I don't think most people understand that without hydraulic fracturing, we wouldn't have natural gas to provide electricity to our homes or gas in our cars.

"There's a gross misconception, and extreme environmentalist groups have been able to get ahold of people's emotions and twist facts and present false evidence. That's what it's all about."

takes to crack tiny little fissures into rocks, more than a mile beneath the surface.

"Fracking is one of the important parts of this," said Leen Weijers, vice president of technology and sales for Liberty Oil Field Services, a private contractor that fracs wells for oil and gas exploration companies.

Those cracks, now held open by the tiny kernels of sand, release the trapped oil and gas inside, which flow back to the surface after the downward pressure from fluids is released from the well.

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"When it's thicker, it does a better job of carrying sand downhole," Weijers said. "If you think about a handful of sand at a lake, and you put it in water, the sand will settle quickly to the bottom of the lake. We don't want that to happen in factures."

"To open fractures at bottom hole pressures in the Niobrara, you probably need downhole pressures of 10,000 psi or so to open the rocks," Weijers said.

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The horizontal portion of the well then is drilled for an additional 4,000 feet to 10,000 feet, then encased in cement, with Nike Black Hoodie Mens

Sand, water and chemical additives are pumped into the well at high pressures, so as to crack the rock in different stages in the horizontal (parallel to the surface) portion of the well.

Drilling stops initially below the water table so the well can be encased in cement to prevent anything from the well leaking into the water table. Once the casing is completed, a 7 inch drill bit will drill more than a mile to get to the formation in which to frac, usually the Niobrara or Codell formations, both stacked beneath several impermeable rock formations. Once the drill bit hits bottom, or the "pay zone," the company will drill what is called the "bend," which is the curve the well takes to get into the horizontal portion of the zone. The bend alone could take up to two days to drill.

a 4 inch metal pipe in the center to allow for the oil and gas to flow to the surface. At this point, the well is just a hole drilled into the ground, with a cement barrier between the pipe, the formations and water table.

Throughout the drilling process, drilling mud is pumped in to cool the drill bit and act as a means for the resulting debris to leave the well.

Many involved in the process describe frac fluid as "slime," like the stuff kids play with from the local toy store.

Environmentalists storm capitals over it, demanding increased regulations, and oil and gas company employees and officials scratch their heads they've been using the same process in oil and gas drilling for 60 years without widespread incidents.

The rig is packed up and activity stops until fracking is scheduled. Sometimes it can wait for weeks before a fracking crew is able to get there. Sometimes it takes a couple of days.

Fracking takes about two to three days in what is roughly a 10 to 14 day process of drilling and completing a well.

Nike Crop Top Womens

Nike Crop Top Womens

"You put a lot worse stuff in your food, your yard, or your garden," Richardson said. "A lot of the chemicals are used to clean your counters, and put in your make up."

The chemicals do not erode the rock to create the cracks or fracs it's the high pressure of the water that opens them up. The chemicals, such as guar gum, which also are in many foods we eat, are added to help the water to gel, allowing the sand an easier vehicle in which to move.

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